Energy, News

How to approach CII, EEXI, EU ETS, and other regulatory efficiency requirements?

Significant improvements can be achieved by installing energy efficient propulsion systems, relevant for both newbuilds and retrofit projects. This article will present some of the methods for increased efficiency available from the Brunvoll expertise and solutions.

Higher Propulsion Efficiency = Lower Fuel Consumption = Reduced Emissions = Improved Business Results

The Regulatory Landscape

The regulations set for the direction towards zero emission shipping in 2050 are many….

EEXI – Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index – the technical energy efficiency of the ship
CII – Carbon Intensity Index – measured from the ship’s operation
EU ETS – Emission Trading System – for CO2 quotas on voyages within EU
FEM – FuelEU Maritime – measuring carbon intensity on the energy used

…..are just some of the regulations – all with a commercial impact, where Energy Efficiency is an important working remedy.

Energy Efficiency

Complying with the standards will fundamentally change the lifecycle of vessels. Ships will need to improve efficiency to maintain or improve the CII-rating, a rating that will become increasingly stringent towards 2030.

EU ETS is also covering shipping from 2024. By increasing the Energy Efficiency the vessel will require less CO2 quotas.

FuelEU Maritime is measuring carbon intensity of the energy used, and a high Energy Efficiency will reduce required volume of alternative fuels.

Before the infrastructure and volume of zero emission fuels have reached a sufficient level, Energy Efficiency through available technology can contribute significantly to reduced emission.

What is CII?

IMO’s Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) is an operational efficiency measure which target is to reduce emissions and make ships more efficient.

CII applies to all vessels above 5000 GWT transporting goods or passengers.

CII is a measure calculated in grams of CO2 per cargo-carrying capacity and nautical mile based on the aggregated operation for the previous calendar year. 2023 is the first year of registration, and the first annual rating will be issued in 2024.

The rating ranges from A to E, where A-C gives a Statement of Compliance (SoC), while D and E require a corrective plan to obtain level C as a minimum.

What is EU ETS?

EU has decided to include shipping to the Emission Trading System (EU ETS). From 2025, ships must report greenhouse gas emission based on the MRV emission reports for the previous year. Shipping companies will acquire and submit allowances for their emission. In 2024 40% of EU-emission need to be compensated. In 2025 it will be 70%, and 100% in 2026. EU-emission is defined as emission from voyages between EU-ports (100%) and between an EU-port and a non-EU-port (50%). EU ETS applies to all vessels above 5000 GWT transporting goods or passengers.

What is EEXI?

Energy Efficiency eXisting ship Index (EEXI) is a measure introduced by IMO to reduce greenhouse gas emission from ships, by improving the technical performance.

The EEXI regulations apply to all existing ocean-going cargo carrying vessels over 400 GWT. The measure must be carried out within the annual class inspection after January 1, 2023, and after any major conversion. An effect of the measures can be to operate at reduced speed and consumption.

Well Prepared for Future Fuels

The compact twin-in single-out gearbox in a configuration with two el. motors. The propeller can be run by one or both el.motors. The gearbox can be connected to up to four el.motors.

A propulsion system with propeller and reduction gearbox is a system of high flexibility – prepared for future fuels.

The gearbox can be connected to conventional combustion engines, dual fuel engines, electric motors powered by auxiliary machinery or from batteries or fuel cells, etc. The mix of energy options in each configuration leads to high flexibility and increased efficiency for the different operations.

A wide range of solutions for PTO/PTI/PTH units will further improve operational flexibility and optimise energy consumption and efficiency;

A vertical offset gearbox with two electric motors.

PTO: Power Take-Out – for power distribution to other consumers
PTI: Power Take-In – for boost and/or hybrid-electric propulsion
PTH: Power Take-Home – for emergency operation mode

The reduction gearbox – the unit that makes it all possible.

The wide range of gearboxes opens for a great variety in system configurations, and optimised systems for all ship types.

– Module based gearbox design makes it convenient to upgrade the system for future requirements
– PTO/PTI solutions can easily be integrated in the gearbox design, for an energy efficient hybrid-electric configuration
– Gearboxes with multiple power inputs allows for optimised hybrid-electric propulsion
– A CP-propeller can optimise the relation between rpm, pitch and power, and operate efficiently over a wider power range

Brunvoll ICP – Integrated Costa Propulsion

The ship and her operating profile is the starting point when deciding upon the propulsion system configuration. For all ships it is essential to reduce fuel consumption by improving the flow around the propeller.

A device that will lead to such improvements for most ship types is the Brunvoll ICP – a rudder with Costa bulb and CP-propeller with hub cap acting as one system.

This system increases propulsion efficiency by up to 8%.

With Brunvoll ICP: The Integrated Costa Propulsion reduces the hub vortex and increases energy efficiency.

Benefits with Condition Monitoring System

– Early warning of possible incident
– Reduced cost when planning and performing service due to early identification of wear or possible malfunctions
– Reduced cost and downtime through preventive maintenance trigged by the condition monitoring system
– Reduces need for dry-docking of the vessel for visually inspection
– Easier troubleshooting due to measuring equipment in operation