In the Agreement on Norway’s climate policy from 2008, the Government presented an action plan for the Norwegian efforts to promote carbon capture and storage as a mitigation measure internationally. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy is responsible both for the coordination and the follow-up of the action plan. The main objective is a more rapid dissemination and employment of carbon capture and storage internationally.
Since 2008, there have been annual allocations on the budget to this strategic work, and for 2011 there has been allocated 10 millions NOK. These funds are largely directed towards activities such as information programs, studies and capacity building.
Geographical areas have been selected, where special efforts within CO2 management is sought. These geographical areas include China, Indonesia, the Gulf States (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and United Arab Emirates) and southern Africa. The largest single investment is in China, where Norway has joined the Near Zero Emission Coal project (NZEC). The project was originally a collaboration between the European Commission and China, but now also includes Norway and the UK. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs supports Phase II of the project by 30 million NOK each.
Norway cooperates closely with the EU on the development of frameworks and regulations for safe capture and storage of CO2. Norway has also established cooperation with international organizations like the International Energy Agency (IEA), the World Bank and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). As part of the cooperation with these organizations, the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy supported the World Bank’s fund for CCS capacity building in developing countries with 5 million NOK. In addition, the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy supports UNIDO’s efforts to develop a roadmap for CO2 capture in industry by 1.8 million NOK.
Moreover, a number of regional and international collaborations have been initiated, directed towards the promotion of carbon capture and storage, in which Norway through the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy participates actively. Among the most important are:
CSLF consists of 23 member countries including the European Commission and key developing countries, and appears to be one of the most important venues for promoting carbon capture and storage. The organization has a policy group and a technical group, led by Norway. Norway has pledged to contribute with 5 million NOK for a capacity building fund for CO2 management in developing countries.
The global CCS institute was established by an initiative from the then Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. The institute’s objective is to contribute to a more rapid dissemination of technologies for CO2 capture and storage internationally. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy is co-owner of the institute, and provides input to the institute’s strategic work.
CEM is a high-level forum created in 2010 by the United States’ Secretary of Energy, Steven Chu, as a follow-up of the climate summit in Copenhagen in 2009. The purpose of the Forum is to promote and develop technologies for clean energy production, and to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience. A series of so-called action groups in various technologies have been established, and Norway is participating in 5 of these. One of these action groups is related to faster diffusion of CO2 capture and storage. The next ministerial meeting in CEM will be held in April 2011.
The aim of ZEP is to encourage CCS-projects in the EU, including the realization of 10 to 12 demonstration projects by 2015. ZEP engages a large number of representatives within European industry, NGOs, research and government. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy chairs the Government group in ZEP.
In 2005 the then British and Norwegian energy ministers established a cooperation on CO2 capture and storage. An important part of the collaboration was the establishment of the North Sea Basin Task Force, involving participation from the two countries’ authorities and industry. The purpose of the group is to draw up common principles for safe transport and storage of CO2 in the North Sea Basin. In 2008, the Netherlands and Germany joined the collaboration, taking its memberships up to four countries. Work is now underway to finalize the report from Phase II of the NSBTF’s work.
4 Kingdoms (4K)
The 4-kingdom cooperation was signed in 2008 by the then energy ministers from Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, the UK and Norway. The cooperation aims to promote alternative use of CO2. The first workshop in the 4K-cooperation was organized in Saudi Arabia in February 2011. The focus of the workshop was the use of CO2 for EOR and commercialization of carbon capture and storage. Two workshops will be organized in the Netherlands and Norway/the UK to follow-up the workshop in Saudi-Arabia.
Front page picture: Minister of Petroleum and Energy, Terje Riis-Johansen attended the CSLF in London in 2009 with, among others, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Steven Chu and Britain’s former Energy and Climate Minister Ed Miliband. Photo: MPE